Author Archives: Kelly

Letters to His Neighbor

Marcel Proust
Translated by Lydia Davis
New Directions ($19.95)

by David Wiley

Marcel Proust, author of the world’s longest and perhaps greatest novel, In Search of Lost Time, was a near-invalid who sequestered himself during most of his masterwork’s composition inside a cork-lined, shuttered bedroom, banishing pollen, noise, sunlight, people, and everything else in the world other than his own voluminous memories. Stories of his reclusiveness have become so legendary and proverbial that inside views of his life—such as his housekeeper Céleste Albaret’s profoundly illuminating memoir, Monsieur Proust—read like gospel to pilgrims in search of more shards of the true Proust. He didn’t write any memoirs himself, unless you count his roman à clef as a memoir, but his epic correspondence forms a kind of double mirror to his endlessly refracting novel. Thus, when any new artifacts documenting this monster of neurotic hermeticism come to light, it’s like the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the caves of Qumran. The latest discovery of twenty-six of his letters to his upstairs neighbor, written over a decade during the composition of In Search of Lost Time, will delight any Proustian and will tide the faithful over until new relics come to light.

An American dentist named Charles Williams lived and worked in the flat just above Proust’s—a nightmare for any sensitive person, let alone one who only slept during the day—and nearly all of the letters in this volume are hilariously labyrinthine requests for quiet. Three are addressed to Dr. Williams himself, while the twenty-three others are addressed to his wife, Marie, who like Proust also had ongoing health problems and whose sensitivity and intelligence very slowly made their mark on her complaining neighbor’s empathy. Some of these letters are simply ingenious in how they wend their way toward their true purpose—quiet, please!—but Proust couldn’t help becoming connected to his fellow sufferer upstairs. Although he almost never actually came into contact with her, he nonetheless gave much of himself to her, and he received perhaps just as much in return. Responding to a letter she wrote to him while she was on vacation, he revels in her perceptive descriptions and reflects his own crepuscular experience right back at her:

You, with your pictorial and sunlit words, have brought color and light into my closed room. Your health has improved you tell me, and your life become more beautiful. I feel great joy over this. I cannot say the same for myself. My solitude has become even more profound, and I know nothing of the sun but what your letter tells me.

Gradually recognizing each other’s finely attuned minds, the two eventually began exchanging books—always through intermediaries, despite being a floor apart; in fact, he even sent some of his letters to her via the mail—and early on he began offering her published samples of his ongoing novel, despite his qualms about their level of polish and completion. Sending her magazine excerpts of what eventually became the work’s second and third volumes, he illuminates his expansive method as he subtly impresses her with why she and her husband need to give him the quiet that his labors require:

But will these detached pages give you an idea of the 2nd volume? And the 2nd volume itself doesn’t mean much; it’s the 3rd that casts the light and illuminates the plans of the rest. But when one writes a work in 3 volumes in an age when publishers want only to publish one at a time, one must resign oneself to not being understood, since the ring of keys is not in the same part of the building as the locked doors.

Those Daedalian keys eventually took seven volumes to become almost integrated into the novel’s full ground plan. Proust’s fully articulated vision halted just short of completion when he died eight years later, his revisions and expansions having ballooned the three volumes that he mentions in this 1914 letter into seven nearly perfect halls of mirrors.

Renowned Proust translator Lydia Davis reproduces the author’s idiosyncratic usage and orthography faithfully, mimicking the improvised quality of these dashed-off letters with a slashing verve (this volume’s reproductions of many of the letters attesting to their slapdash nature). The original French editors Estelle Gaudry and Jean-Yves Tadié contribute helpful endnotes, which Davis translates, expands, and emends to great effect, although Davis unfortunately has her hands tied with Proust-biographer Tadié’s labored foreword. Davis’s afterword also indulges in a few too many of her own peccadillos, such as way too much information about what the bank that occupies Proust’s former apartment looks like now. The real magic of her afterword comes in its coda, which tells the story of the grandson of a Norman florist reading extracts from these letters online and subsequently disclosing Proust’s flower-buying habits and etiquette with the Williamses and others, noting the thirty-two times that he visited the shop between 1908 and 1912. Unearthing these intricately revealing records is the true Proustian pursuit, redeeming Davis’s mini-gospel of its few apocryphal lapses and elevating this volume’s host of testamentary material to nearly the level of the letters themselves. A tiny reliquary, this book’s illuminated codex now serves as a minor pilgrimage for all true Proustian communicants.

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Rain Taxi Online Edition Spring 2018 | © Rain Taxi, Inc. 2018

Making Rent in Bed-Stuy: A Memoir of Trying to Make It in New York City

Brandon Harris
Amistad ($15.99)

by Joseph Houlihan

Brandon Harris’s Making Rent in Bed-Stuy: A Memoir of Trying to Make it in New York City is symphonic in scope and expression. The memoir, presented in connected film and cultural writings, tells the story of the ambitions and frustrations of a young filmmaker in the decade after his college graduation. A transplant from Cincinnati, Harris experiences the gentrification of the historically black Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, and he strives to come to terms with his own ambivalent relationship to the forces responsible for this change.

As Harris seeks to find a voice in a community quickly losing its historical character, Making Rent examines the role of racial difference in the production of culture and social hierarchy. It follows various threads related to the millennial experience, especially looking at the way that gentrification, or the influence of the globalized corporate economy on urban environments, plays out in the lived experience. A paradox emerges, because even as multinational corporations create a sameness across America, difference persists.

Difference cuts many ways. It can create nostalgia for meaningful cultural identities against homogenization, or even hope for the possibility of multicultural communities. Harris moves from Cincinnati to New York City at the beginning of the current development boom, and settles in a neighborhood being rebranded “Clinton Hill.” As a young black man, he speaks bravely about his ambivalence in relation to this process. He moves between the desire to make art that is meaningful to many people and the desire to remain connected to a coherent cultural and historical blackness. All of this is heightened by the titular challenge: making rent.

The book employs a neat framing device; Harris breaks the chapters down by his many itinerant apartments first in Bedford-Stuyvesant, and then later as he’s priced out, farther afield in Queens. Harris is funny and charming as he recounts his social and romantic travails, reminding us that “all we do is for this frightened thing we call love” (as Allen Ginsberg put it in “Wichita Vortex Sutra”). In an interview at The Rumpus, he expands on this idea, saying “empathy is cheap, engagement is more difficult.”

For Harris, engagement presents the possibility of people living together and loving each other. It's important that he describes some of the almost uncanny fears that come in dating white women. He writes about the middle-class experience of code switching, gently mocking lower-class relatives and then later feeling vulnerable and parochial when visiting a girlfriend in an overly WASP-y New England Brahmin setting. And yet he moves through the vulnerability, because engagement is about reaching out and touching other people. One of the most compelling themes in the memoir is that personal values are meaningless if they do not support networks of caring.

This is true of the aesthetics of place, and it's true about people making art. Over the past decade several critically acclaimed white novelists and filmmakers have made works about coming to terms with an adulthood significantly whiter than their childhoods. Another symphonic look at gentrification, Jonathan Lethem's The Fortress of Solitude practically screams, “I lived there in the 1970s!” Conversely, Michael Chabon's Telegraph Avenue imagines a world where people still talk to each other and there is love and compassion in R&B music. It's telling that fewer black voices are asking, “where are all the white people that I loved so much from my childhood?” (America in the age of Trump has a lot of white visibility). But in Making Rent in Bed-Stuy, Harris does capture some of the ambivalence of a person leaving a more multicultural middle-class experience for one of increasing isolation set against the reality of homogenization and downward social mobility.

Hip, and the persistence of cool, is another thread that Harris spins out in the book; he cites early and often some of his heroes and influences, including John Cassavetes, Kathleen Collins, and Bill Gunn. By staking out this territory, he aligns himself with the idea that hip, in the service of a counterculture is worth it. Harris sacrifices stability to grow as a creative voice; he works to support a vital culture that he also seeks to be a part of. And so he reviews small movies, and attends screenings and readings. He works on projects that are not his own, and sends text messages to fellow strivers in earnest solidarity. Even as he does these things, however, things are not quite right. His former best-friend and college roommate becomes a kind of foil in the book, representing the bitter falsehood of the meritocratic promise. The question of making it versus making rent remains unanswered.

Harris came of age in the worst economy since the Great Depression, and of course the black middle class was disproportionately hurt in the 2008 crisis, but Harris approaches this period with wry humor. There’s generosity in his account, and something like straight talk. He’s committed to the artist’s vision, which James Schuyler said is “to be strong / to see things as they are / too fierce and yet not too much.” He strives and he hustles, but even after making it, he has difficulty making rent. He directed a feature film in 2012 called Redlegs, but he was still forced to live on SNAP benefits and write home for money. His parade of part-time jobs and hustles exemplifies the traumatic rupture so many Americans experienced between their perceived sense of self and their lived experience.

In writing a memoir about Bed-Stuy, and the experience of gentrification and corporate homogenization there, Harris is also writing about his own home. In one of the strongest sections of the text, Brandon Harris returns to Cincinnati’s Over-the-Rhine neighborhood:

Gentrification works differently back home than it does in New York. In Cincinnati . . . poor people don’t have organizations of resilience that demand political accountability for their needs. While the black community’s highest strata have collective clout that can shake city hall, their working-class brethren, out in the neighborhoods, don’t . . . The city’s long-blighted and now suddenly urban quarters are gobbled up and renamed.

Like many other cities in the post-industrial moment, Cincinnati’s economy is corporate and largely service oriented. A large community development corporation, Cincinnati Center City Development Corp (3CDC), led much of the development of Over-the-Rhine, “with the largest collection of Italianate architecture in America save Greenwich Village,” into a circus of boutiques, restaurants, and beerhalls.

As a filmmaker, Harris was excited to collaborate with a newly established micro-cinema in Over-the-Rhine, but his excitement was tempered by the organization’s reality. Harris is clear-eyed about this because it represents a big piece of the challenge surrounding the relationship between the avant-garde and politics. Although apparently dedicated to experimental work, the cinema was described as not “the place to complain about the 3CDC.” Short of effecting progressive social realities, the avant-garde is often co-opted into the service of consumerist solipsism. His experience that summer in Cincinnati is further heightened by the police shooting of an unarmed black man, leading to protests and frustration as the City entrenched. It’s a vivid and defining account.

Harris establishes himself as a leading cultural critic in this book, and he is strategic in the filmmakers, musicians, and artists he champions. He reviews an early vision of gentrification in Bed-Stuy, The Landlord by Hal Ashby. He writes about Spike Lee and Da Sweet Blood of Jesus, as well as Nasty Baby by Sebastián Silva. He cites Julie Dash, Chester Himes, Gil Scott-Heron, and Charles Burnett. Through these investigations, he is dedicated to supporting blackness. By choosing Bedford-Stuyvesant, one of the first urban enclaves of free blacks in 19th-century America, Harris is holding up a culture he wants to see persist. This is important, because part of the history of gentrification is based on the changing global economy, but part of it is also the result of explicit racism. Gentrification in the last thirty years mirrors the white flight of the middle century: Slums within urban centers were supported by explicit housing policy, explicitly racial redlining, explicitly racist FHA lending, and explicitly targeted block busting. In this history of Bed-Stuy, Harris tells the biography of an idea worth saving.

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Rain Taxi Online Edition Spring 2018 | © Rain Taxi, Inc. 2018


Monday, May 21, 7pm
Plymouth Congregational Church
1900 Nicollet Ave, Minneapolis
co-sponsored by Rain Taxi, Birchbark Books, and Literary Witnesses

Join us as we welcome the internationally acclaimed author Michael Ondaatje to present his latest work, Warlight: a mesmerizing new novel that tells a dramatic story set in the decade after World War II. Ondaatje will be in conversation with the Twin Cities’ own Louise Erdrich, with a reception and book signing to follow.

This event is free and open to the public—
not to be missed!

Doors open at 6:30. PARKING is available in the Plymouth Church lot, the Plymouth Church reserved spots in the lot of the Hardware Store across the street on Groveland and Nicollet, and the spots in the PPL lot across Nicollet from the church, as well as in the Park Nicollet clinic lost across Franklin and Blaisdell (after 6 pm). See HERE for a map of these lots near Plymouth Church.



In 1945, just after World War II, fourteen-year-old Nathaniel and his older sister Rachel stay behind in London when their parents move to Singapore. They suspect their caretaker, a mysterious figure named The Moth, might be a criminal, and they grow more convinced as they come to know his eccentric crew of friends: men and women joined by a shared secret history, all of whom seem determined now to protect Rachel and Nathaniel. But are they really what and who they claim to be? And what does it mean when the siblings’ mother returns after months of silence without their father? A dozen years later, Nathaniel begins to uncover all that he didn’t know and understand, and it is this journey through facts, recollection, and imagination that makes this latest masterwork from Ondaatje as beguiling and mysterious as memory itself.


Michael Ondaatje is the acclaimed author of seven novels, as well as a memoir, a nonfiction book on film, and several books of poetry. His novel The English Patient won the Booker Prize; Anil’s Ghost won the Irish Times International Fiction Prize, the Giller Prize, and the Prix Médicis. Born in Sri Lanka, Michael Ondaatje now lives in Toronto.

I’m Still Trying to Figure It Out: An Interview with Noah Falck

photo by Beth Insalaco

Interviewed by Aidan Ryan

Noah Falck gives me a look that says “I’ll tell you later.”
We are in the deep leather recesses of the bar at the Statler Hotel, a grand and literally crumbling building on Niagara Square, which is actually a Circle, the radial heart of downtown Buffalo, N.Y. Drinks are two-for-one—even Manhattans—and almost no one is here.

Noah has just deflected a question about his most recent project. But in just two weeks, the literary publishing world’s omertà is lifted: Noah tells me that the editors of Tupelo Press have selected his next full-length collection, Exclusions, for publication.

We’re at the Statler to discuss Noah’s poetry—primarily the reissue of his debut collection, Snowmen Losing Weight, from BatCat Press, though we eventually get to Exclusions—but the conversation keeps folding back upon his deep commitments to the community here. A native of Dayton, OH, he came to Buffalo when he landed a position as Education Director at the Just Buffalo Literary Center, the region’s largest literary organization. In that role he grapples daily with what all external authorities agree is a tragicomically doomed and failing public education system—Noah’s efforts expose more and more children each year to living and working writers from their own communities, and provide them a safe space for experimentation with words at Just Buffalo’s free Writing Center downtown.

He’s also the creator of the city’s most singular reading series, which three times each summer brings visiting poets to Buffalo, matching them with local poets, performance artists, musicians, and visual artists for unforgettable encounters in a complex of 130-foot concrete grain silos, relics of the region’s industrial and commercial heritage. Along with a few others, he has changed the way we look at our landscape—instead of a backdrop, it’s a stage, a character, an orchestra.

Poet, educator, curator, urbanist—and editor: now, Noah is wrapping up his work on My Next Heart: New Buffalo Poetry (BlazeVox Books, $18), a project that collects recent poetry from a diverse crop of the city’s finest young poets and literary leaders.

The bar fills up; there is a loud cluster around the shuffleboard. Surprised by the ground we’re covering, I pause the recording—we come up as if for air, but really for another round. The light coming through the curtains has turned from spun-gold to night-marina navy. I don’t tell him this, but I think of his “Poem Excluding Witnesses”: “During the 5th inning, you dance / your way into the souls of an entire / generation in the industrial part of town / where the sky loses every time.”

We start the recording again. He greets the next question—as he greets the next poem, the next project, the next Instagrammed cloudscape—with astonishment. And all around us, the crowd goes wild.

Aidan Ryan: BatCat Press just re-released Snowmen Losing Weight, which came out as a beautiful accordion-style hardback in 2012. Now it’s coming back in an inexpensive, travel-ready edition, introducing an older version of yourself to a new audience, and maybe (re)introducing that older version of yourself, that other time, to you. Take me back.

Noah Falck: I was living in Dayton, Ohio. I remember getting really excited about Snowmen and putting together a release show for it, which included three bands and poets Nick Sturm and Matt Hart. I was always interested in that kind of mix, because I feel like music and poetry are very similar mediums. They are trying to accomplish the same things in a lot of ways. So it was just kind of celebrating this idea of having a book. At the time, I didn’t know exactly what it meant to have a book in the world; I had a few chapbooks out but having a full-length felt to me like a deeper step into . . . this world. It was really exciting.

AR: So you got into poetry through music. What was the bridge?

NF: It seems like an old white guy thing now, especially since Dylan has won the Nobel Prize in Literature, but I was raised on classic rock, so I would listen to the Beatles, Dylan, and stuff like that. In high school I became a huge Dylan-head. I remember Time Out of Mind coming out when I was a sophomore in college, and I was just infatuated with the lyrics. At the same time I was taking my first “real” poetry workshops. I remember reading Charles Simic at the time, and thinking about the relationship between lyrics and poetry. I know that’s an ongoing debate—can lyrics be poetry, can poetry be music—and my answer to both is yes. I think that was the initial step—listening to the music, but paying super close attention to the lyrics, like a close read of the ear. It has become how I listen to all music, which can be a problem, I’ve realized. But if the lyrics aren’t good enough, I’m just not going to give a shit. Which is hard particularly these days because I have a two-year old, and we’ve just been listening to the Trolls soundtrack, on repeat, all the fucking time. There are some good beats in there, I think . . . but I don’t even know what that means. It’s easy to listen to, but it’s annoying as all hell. Maybe it’s because I hear it all the time, but I feel nothing for the lyrics.

[At this point the prolonged exclamations of a group playing on a well-salted shuffleboard table drown out our discussion, in which we attempt to define “beat” and discuss manifestations of the same in the Trolls soundtrack versus early TV on the Radio.]

NF: But I think that was the step in. Hearing Bob Dylan singing these songs . . . he created a fully realized world within a song. And I think in a poem, even in a short little twelve-line poem, you can potentially create an entire world.

AR: It seems like you try to do that in Snowmen Losing Weight. I was familiar with a slice of your work, but it was much more recent work; here I was struck by—well, by how many of your poems had plot. They were narrative driven, they were condensed . . . like for example “Boss Crashes the Party.” That’s much more plot-driven than your recent work. On the flipside, there are poems like “In The Club of Farmland Thunder” that also create a world without much plot at all.

NF: I think that initially I thought that the poems kind of had to have that narrative structure. And I was really interested in narrative poems. A lot of the poets I read early on—not necessarily Charles Simic, but poets like Stevens, Frost, Bishop, had a kind of narrative and a conversational tone . . . I also went through a Beat stage, and there were narratives in that. But the more I read, the more I realized that the poems could be anything you wanted them to be, and it shifted my thinking on how my voice could work into a narrative. I also became obsessed with the prose poem—I went through a whole stage of writing hundreds of prose poems.

AR: So this originally came out five years ago, and you said some of the poems in it are at least fifteen years old. Which feel the most distant?

NF: “Girl With Silver Pooper Scooper.” That’s one of the oldest poems in here, that I can think of, without looking at my notes. The Crossword poems are fairly old, too; that was a chapbook collection where I pulled some of my favorite crossword poems out and included them in Snowmen. It’s really weird looking at these. Some of them I’ve never read out loud, because I didn’t think they could be understood, like if I read them and said “Here’s the story behind this,” it would be longer than the poem, and what’s the point of doing that?

AR: What’s the point of putting them in a collection?

NF: I think that those poems were a good representation of who I was at the time. That collection in a lot of ways was like, here are the poems I’ve written in the last six years. I had no idea what I was doing in terms of putting them together. If I would look at that now, I would edit the whole thing. I think there’s something to be said about that, too, in terms of . . . are poems ever finished? You know, if you revisit something five years later it’s still part of who you were and what you were thinking at the time, but it's also a way of growing and reflecting as a person and as a writer. There are elements and moments that really shine, but some of the poems are not who I am anymore. I think a lot of that has shifted due to who I’ve been reading and the voices that are affecting how I look at the world. With all that said, I'm still super happy with it, and I love that it's a thing in the world.

AR: It's weird, the act of publication really ought to be for the reader, you know, the ones receiving the poems. But for us—and I don’t think this is egotistical—it’s about sloughing off some of the “selfness” that we’ve accumulated. Generally when you publish one project, you've already moved on to the next—but that next poem or book or whatever sort of lives in the shadow of this unpublished thing, crowding up the house. Publication gives whatever you're working on that necessary room, that license. So people get to ask again—is this new thing a Noah Falck poem? Who the hell is Noah Falck, anyway?

NF: I clearly remember that I had already moved on. I was working on a new chapbook collection, which became the Celebrity Dream Poems (Poor Claudia, 2013), which is a micro-chapbook of twenty poems which use celebrity names as titles and try to interpret the dreamscapes of those celebrities. I also think writing is a daily practice—you can't wait for something to be published. You want to think in terms of books I guess, but you also just have to get work done. Read, write, and have something to look back on.

So going back to your question, I had already moved on—and actually that first poem in Snowmen, "Wind," was a late poem, maybe a month or two before the publication. It's kind of funny looking at that versus the other poems in there. I don't know if people can see the difference or not, but it's weird.

AR: I was going to say, the difference is obvious. This is something I wanted to bring up at the beginning. I came at this book expecting to find an unknown. The first of your poems that I encountered was at the Peach Mag reading in October of 2016, and it was "Poem Excluding Politics." But when I opened up this book and read “Wind” I recognized not only “you,” but something like your efforts in your Exclusions series, which is now going to be your second full-length collection. In “Wind” you're trying to drive down to the essence of one element, or provoke the question of what this thing means to us. In a loose way I felt that prefigured your exclusion poems.

NF: The exclusion poems are a project I probably put five years of energy into. I wrote the majority of those really quickly—within six months I wrote fifty or sixty of them, and then tinkered with them for something like four years. The premise of it was writing an idea or an object or a person out of a poem. So, a poem excluding politics, excluding mathematics, excluding death. Just thinking about what was going to be removed from a poem or a world—and I see poems as worlds—what would be left there? What would be the remaining pieces? And I was fascinated by that because it's, like you said, an act of condensing—a lot of them are like ten to twelve lines, maybe shorter. They really are just trying to get to the point. They were really fun to write. "Wind" was probably a ways before that but was moving in a new direction, clearly less narrative, more about structure in a way, and form.

It's really hard to write a really good short poem. I was studying a lot of Graham Faust’s work at the time, who I think is a master of short form. I was reading William Carlos Williams, Ben Lerner, and Andrew Grace, who wrote that amazing collection Sancta. It also stunted me after that because I've been trying to write longer poems and it's hard to get out of that space. In the same way I was writing prose blocks for a time. The exclusions were all prose blocks initially, and I realized they needed to be broken up. I love that tinkering process, figuring out what is a poem's shape. I like initially starting as a block, and then carving out a skeleton.

AR: So a sort of sculptural approach to poetry?

NF: Absolutely. I like looking at something on a page—I'm really interested in visual components—which the poems in Snowmen Losing Weight don't always have. The choices you're making in giving space between lines, is important, and took me a long time to learn.

AR: If your aim is to exclude something from the poem—how do you begin the poem?

NF: Whatever the idea is, exists. Is it an opposite poem, do you approach it from an opposite point-of-view? I think some of the Exclusions are trying to approach that. There's a freedom in writing against something. In “Poem Excluding Politics,” even though I'm writing something that's going to be excluded, the foundation of the idea is already there. It's in the title. As a reader, you have it. So I'm not directly discussing or breaking into political identities or structures or forms, but I allow this to be a stepping stone that allows me to address it . . . by not addressing it.

AR: Just given the titles, the sort of rule you set yourself, it's hard not to see the poems as an experiment in inclusion by exclusion, such that politics is a silhouette cast in the poem.

NF: That's exactly what I was aiming for.

AR: Snowmen Losing Weight originally came out in 2012; shortly thereafter, you moved from Dayton, O.H. to Buffalo, N.Y.

NF: Yes, I was a school teacher for ten years in Dayton and Cincinnati. My wife is originally from Hamburg, NY. We had recently married and were looking to move someplace else, and we drew up a list of places to move. We had this deal because she moved from New York to Dayton that she’d decide where our next move would be; so we made the list and applied to different jobs and I landed the Just Buffalo Literary Center Education Director job, and her folks were from here, so we were just like, let's go to Buffalo! And it was just at that time that the quote unquote Renaissance had begun, maybe a year or two before. But there was definitely a feeling in the air when we moved here; a bubbling energy. Buffalo is pretty amazing. I remember feeling overwhelmed with joy stepping into the communities that are already formed here, because they’re really open and welcoming. There are good things to come for Buffalo. I think we're lucky to be here, really.

AR: When did you realize you were going to put poetry in Buffalo’s grain silos—probably our most iconic surviving architecture, with apologies to Sullivan, Richardson, and Wright—and then how did you make it happen?

NF: I knew I wanted to do some kind of reading series as soon as I called this place home, especially coming off the book release, which had almost all the elements—it had poetry, it had music, we had all of those communities together. I met my friend Joe Hall, a great poet who moved here the same year we did, for a drink at Nietzsche's, and we talked about being new to Buffalo and writing poems. He had a book coming out and he said, Hey man, do you know any place where I can have a book release party? I said, Yeah, you know, I was down at the grain silos. I went to the City of Night [an arts festival at one of Buffalo’s grain silo complexes] and it was really cool, a little overwhelming, but cool. Being in one of those silos by yourself is an experience. City of Night had installation projects, but there wasn't really a live performance, that I recall. So I went down there and asked Swannie Jim [the groundskeeper], can we put on a poetry reading? They were completely open and enthusiastic about the idea. We did it in the Perot elevator silo, which didn’t have any power; I remember for each event Swannie had to hook up a generator so we could have lights. We had Ahavaraba, a klezmer band, perform, and hung the photography of Thomas Bittner. It was super fun. It was a little art party, which is to me what a reading should be—it should be a party. I'm always interested in inviting new people into the scene and inviting them to experience a poem, and a lot of readings don't feel like that. They feel stiff, like some people aren't smart enough to engage with poetry, or won't get it. I think having the music and art elements are a way of inviting different communities in, saying, this is all poetry as well. That was some of the idea behind the silos. And the space is a poem too.

AR: So if the music is a poem and the visual art is a poem and the space is a poem and the poem is a poem . . . can you define poetry?

NF: [laughs] I cannot. I'll refer to . . . what did Anne Carson say? Something like, "voicing your astonishment." To voice your astonishment you have to notice things that other people wouldn't notice. That's one way of defining what a poem is—something the voice is astonished with. And in the everyday, how often are you astonished? I think everybody has the ability and opportunity to be astonished all the time—which is why children are just naturally connected to poetry. And they learn not to be poets over time. I don't know if it's like a stepping back, or noticing the sky, or a breeze that happens at the right time, or a car passing by with the right music. I think all these things are potentially astonishing. I think noticing that, capturing that, and then telling the world about it, is a poem. And it's hard, as an adult person, to notice things. Particularly in today's world. You're being bombarded with hurricanes and fire and Trump, and whatever just happened here.

[He gestures to a now-empty shuffleboard table.]

AR: Besides the silos, you’ve been able to showcase the city by providing a creative space and a platform for its children. Tell me more about your mission at the Just Buffalo Literary Center.

NF: It's a dream job in terms of being able to work in the educational realm and to put literature and poetry in a more central position. Coming out of the classroom after ten years and realizing how little time and space is devoted to creative writing or writing in general or the thinking about writing, it's been amazing to be at Just Buffalo and to have that as my central core position, promoting creative writing in the schools and in our own Writing Center. At the same time, it's been an ongoing battle to work with the Buffalo School District, and for them to realize how important it is to have this avenue for young people to have a chance to write creatively or think about their own lives. Eighty percent of the writing that we do in the classrooms is informational writing, which is great—it's good to be able to write clearly about a subject—but it's also really important to think about who you are, where you're coming from, and the ideas you're having. It’s exciting to be in this role, but it's been a battle since I got here in terms of finding partner schools and teachers that really want to invest in us the same way we want to invest in them. Not to say they're not out there—it's just been difficult to find them.

AR: It's important to be able to write clearly about a subject—but what about being able to put yourself imaginatively inside another subjectivity? Novels do that. Poetry can do it in the space of one thirty-minute lesson.

NF: Absolutely. I mentioned the Just Buffalo Writing Center, a free after-school creative writing hub. The idea there is we're open Tuesdays and Thursdays, 3:30 to 6, for teenagers 12 to 18 to come in, and each week we offer a new workshop taught by a professional writer. They’ve had playwrights, poets, fiction writers, people from the Buffalo News, graphic novelists . . . They get exposed to all these different kinds of writers and have an opportunity and the space to work with all these different ideas. Maybe it is only for a couple days, but at least they're having a few hours during that week to work in that space, to empathize and think about what it means to be someone else. A lot of that has to do with the world they’re living in, to think about—what if you were a refugee? What if you were an immigrant? It is important to think about these questions, to have conversations about all of it. And to be clear, some of these kids in some of these schools are already thinking about these questions—but I think the vast majority of the time is spent on preparing them to answer test questions correctly, and read the canonized literature.

AR: If they were reading the canonized literature, that would be one thing. But it's somebody else's wacky canon —

NF: That's exactly it. And I think that transition is happening slowly in progressive districts, but literature that's happening, that's out right now, that's making waves today should be taught in schools today. Claudia Rankine—she should be in the classroom today. Morgan Parker—she should be in classrooms today. Ocean Vuong. And if they're not, it's a disservice to the students. And that's a role that we could potentially play with the school districts, to say, Hey, maybe you could invite us in and we could do a week or two weeks of creative writing. And it's all structured around whatever they could afford, it's not necessarily pay-to-play—we have grant funding. I think there's a lot of pressure from administrative staff. I know teachers want to have us in there, but it doesn't always work with the schedule.

So I love the transition of not being in the classroom, not having to fit under that umbrella of what teachers have to struggle with day in and day out. On the other hand, it's a struggle on our end to break down those barriers.

AR: Meanwhile, you've been at work for almost nine months now on another project—My Next Heart.

NF: Yeah, My Next Heart: New Buffalo Poetry is a collection of work that I'm editing with Justin Karcher, a local poet and playwright. It's going to showcase a handful of younger voices that are bright spots in the Buffalo literary scene. It’s been really funny having conversations with Justin, who comes from a different school of thinking altogether than myself, in terms of what poetry is and all that—which is great, having a conversation about what's good, what's not, what these poems are doing. It doesn't necessarily have to represent what Buffalo is, but it is highlighting a large number of young folks writing poems around here. To me it's like a snapshot of what's happening right now in the slam scene, in the UB Poetics Program, people who've been published in Peach Mag, in Foundlings, people who aren’t affiliated with any of that and just writing poems on their own. It's a way of collecting all these voices and putting them in a beautiful, tight anthology. To me it's going to be more of a collection than an anthology—there could be spinoffs, depending on how successful it is. I think there's a relevance to capturing what's happening right now because there's so much being written, there are so many performances night in and night out, there are different types of poetry, different styles, different voices, different ages. But this collection will specifically focus on younger poets, poets forty and under. BlazeVOX is going to publish it in December 2017.

AR: Why forty?

NF: I think we landed on that for a few reasons. A lot of the poets forty and under haven't published all that much, so they are performing, doing readings, and putting on performances all over the city, and this is a way of saying, What you're doing is good, your work is good, and we want to publish your work and celebrate everything you’re doing. On the other end, the folks who are forty-one and up, many of them have published quite a bit. Many of them have their own reading series, their own thing, so it's not to exclude them, it's just a way to turn the spotlight for one moment, for one collection, on these younger voices. There's been some interest in a collection focused on older poets, too. There's no telling what might come out of this.

AR: My Next Heart—where does the title come from? What does it say about the collection, and what does it say about Buffalo?

NF: The title comes right out of one of Janet McNally's poems which will be included in the collection—first published in the magazine Women's Things, and then in McNally's book Some Girls. Janet’s a spectacular poet who teaches at Canisius College. We looked for a title a few weeks back and a lot of the idea was we didn't just want to name it “The New Buffalo Poetry” or whatever; we wanted it to come out of something from one of the poems. I think My Next Heart says exactly what we want the collection to be—it's an emblem for this next generation of poets. It's another movement. Another beat.

AR: It's interesting—the title signals a birth, but a rebirth, not a birth from a void. The poem takes place in a science lab, probably in Sacred Heart Academy, this iconic Buffalo girls school where Janet went. It depicts these girls using elements of "what came before"—inherited tools and techniques and methods—and making something new. The idea is that we change hearts many times over our lives, but there is never, really, a "break" from the past.

NF: It makes me think of the cover art—we have a piece from the artist Chuck Tingley, and it also kind of resembles a building upon the old, building upon the foundation that we're walking on. This collection recognizes that—the history of Buffalo, the history of Buffalo literature—and it wants to take that into the next phase. It's gonna be beautiful.

AR: That sounds to my ears like the distinct optimism of the father of a two-year-old. Has being a young father influenced all these endeavors—your work in education, in publishing, in creating new traditions—in writing?

NF: You know, I don't think so, at this point. My kid has informed me in a lot of ways, but to me what I'm doing with Just Buffalo and what Just Buffalo does in general is create space for a better world. My kid fits into that—she might benefit from that in the future, but I'm not working specifically for her. It's a community thing. I believe in the idea that people need the space to read, that people need the space to have these conversations about literature and what they're thinking and how they're feeling about things; to me that's just what we should be doing as citizens. There's not enough space for that to happen as citizens. We're all living in our own worlds and a great way to bring each other together is by reading and writing and having these events and celebrating the work that's going on in this community. My kid is benefiting from that and living in this community, but at this point, a two-year-old, she's more interested in Trolls—and her beautiful picture books.

But I don't know, that's an interesting question. It's something I constantly think about when I'm writing new work—I don't want to say it’s strictly influenced by her, but knowing that I have a child in this world and that she's coming through it—what this particular world has in store for her—it's scary in a lot of ways. Just the shitstorm that we've been through in the past year as a country, that comes out in my writing subconsciously. On the other side, she's a two-year-old; she doesn't really understand what's going on globally. She will come to terms with that soon I'm sure, but . . . ah, it's terrifying being a parent. I'm still trying to figure it out.

Rain Taxi Online Edition Spring 2018 | © Rain Taxi, Inc. 2018

The Aeneid

Translated by David Ferry
University of Chicago Press ($35)

by Anshuman Mody

In a poem in his 2012 collection Bewilderment, David Ferry works with a letter in which Goethe says, “To live / Long is to outlive many.” Ferry’s poem is about “The death that lives in the intention of things / To have a meaning of some sort or other.” The imagery of loss and yearning in the work of this mature master suggests how suited he is to appreciate that same profoundly mournful quality in Virgil’s epic, The Aeneid. Every new translation holds its mirror up to the original, so we might ask: by what features might a reader in English come to know Virgil in Ferry’s version?

The tone of Virgil’s poem is frequently elegiac. During passages of warfare, Virgil even tends to be exquisitely delicate, as can be seen in Robert Fitzgerald’s 1983 translation:

The Argive fleet,
Drawn up in line abreast, left Tenedos
Through the aloof moon’s friendly stillnesses

Ferry’s “under the silent / Stillness of the moon,” by contrast, falls a bit short in phrasing the total beauty of Virgil’s “per amica silentia lunae,” but his translation often has a measured eloquence that can be full of feeling:

Aurora rose, spreading her pitying light,
And with it bringing back to sight the labors
Of sad mortality, what men have done,
And what has been done to them; and what they must do
To mourn.

Ferry’s version gains by its simplicity of language, especially as The Aeneid offers “a quick succession of events.” Where another prominent Virgil translator, Robert Fagles, gives us “One hope saves the defeated: they know they can’t be saved” in his 2006 version, Ferry conveys thoughtfully and simply that the defeated are “clarified by despair.” In Book II’s recounting of the fall of Troy, the merit of Ferry’s simplicity is palpable; the narration flows but retains a literary quality. The tone of his work feels carefully accomplished, as when he describes the bewilderment of Turnus as he is pursued by Aeneas to his death:

It’s as in sleep, in the quiet of the night,
Our languid eyelids close and in their dream
Won’t tell wherever we are nor where we’re going
Or trying to go nor can we get there where-
Ever where might be, and who knows who it is
We maybe are, our legs gone weak, no way
To get there where?

Passages both of warfare and human suffering abound in The Aeneid, as they do in Homer’s The Iliad and The Odyssey. In Ferry’s version, there’s a notable balance of an eloquent sensibility and a narrative simplicity—both of which Virgil’s epic demands, often simultaneously.

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Make Yourself Happy

Eleni Sikelianos
Coffee House Press ($18)

by Linda Lown-Klein

In this, her seventh collection of poems in an oeuvre that includes a long eco-poem, two hybrid essays/memoirs, and six other books of poetry, Eleni Sikelianos writes whimsically about how to "make ourselves happy" while sounding a strong cautionary note about the risks to the biosphere if we focus solely on our own well-being.

Chiding us for our selective perception, she writes:

The sounds of

sirens outside the window are
gay to the ear that tends
to hear what it needs
to make itself happy.

Her poems urge us to acknowledge our responsibility to the universe, as when, after killing a raccoon that "looked so evil," the speaker wonders: "What if it were The / Last Animal on Earth?" Wary of the risks of human self-absorption, the speaker in another poem says: "I would not wish to live anywhere, ever, where everybody's always / happy.”

In a world where "Everybody's hoarding / Everybody's barfing up / the world's extra energy,” Sikelianos writes poignantly about the determination of the animals to hold on:

They will never be done Never be
done dancing     If we wipe them
from the face of the earth
they will never be done being
part of it          making the world with their
sounds & feet & hooves

until they are done dancing the
animals' ghost dance &
then they will be done.


Throughout this three-section book, Sikelianos deconstructs and reconstructs words and sounds, stretching and shortening them to create new meanings. "put the letters in the tin can and rattle them around," says the speaker. Elsewhere, burrowing down to basics, she says: "I look up at the sky, scan / for atoms, colors, vowels."

Imagery from the biosphere abounds. This is a world where all is fluid and objects morph into one another: "A seagull goes crashing / right into a cloud / because it wants to be a cloud / . . . The clouds being hills once hug the hills close.”

That same dreamlike quality obliterates boundaries of time and place; in this book where nouns come alive as verbs and which is rich with references to mythology, psychology, philosophy, science, and literature, Sappho can emerge from the past to step right into the contemporary world of the poem:

What I mean and what I meadow
What I want and what I winnow
When I see it it's Sappho biting into a sesame seed
She arrives right through the centuries
Walked from Mólivos to Pétra
Bright blossoms along the way
Green fields seaside and some rundown stone houses among the hotels
Sappho, how's it going

Often, the poetic act itself is the subject, and on one page we meet the poem in the flesh:

I am walking down a narrow street
I leap
into your arms
your arms are the poem
and I am the poet
how wonderful
to meet like this
right on the street, stranger!

Sikelianos leaves us much to ponder and urges us what best to heed, if we want to truly learn "how to live":

"ONE WAY" into these woods
the sign says and
"no parking" as if
I'd want to park my carc-
ass in a patch of snow
a fuzz of white pine sapling says yes yes
in the wind then
no no!         when it says yes
and when it says no make a
go of
it. It
is how to live. (35)

Enhanced by its illustrations and well researched, Make Yourself Happy is committed to seeing language in all its vibrancy make a plug for the universe.

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Jacqueline Waters
Ugly Duckling Presse ($15)

by Greg Bem

A mesmerizing book of poetry, Jacqueline Waters’s Commodore often reads like a journal, a daybook, a record of activity. It is a demonstration of the difficulties of consistency in a world where we take balance and stability in our daily lives for granted. Commodore is also a powerful push towards the confessional tone of the 21st century, one that offers readers a new way of looking at the deeply personal and the persistence of the individual.

Waters’s poems carry a wide range of appearances, which often hinders the expectant reader from gaining a foothold in the work, but this disorientation wears off over time. In some of the most earnest moments, the poems find their enjambed lines simulating prose, and every so often, line breaks are far from present. (“You have often walked into large mirrors because you don’t recognize your reflection and truly believe this other person will move out of ‘your’ way,” she writes in “I’m Entitled to My Opinion.”) But Waters subtly utilizes the line breaks for the sake of dramatic impact, demonstrating a keen eye for the line and ear for the sound, as in “The Actor”:

They broke it off
and gave it to me I
ground it to a powder
I mixed with water
in an old hated pail

Thus I gave them escape

Beyond their visual surfaces, the substance of the poems is of great value and weight: it comes from Waters herself primarily, and pulls in the lives and offerings of the people and the world around her. Commodore as a title reflects structure and leadership, and often the poems find their voices speaking of will, confidence, and reflection on conflict. This style of response and reflection follows in the footsteps of many poets that have come before her, but Waters maintains an integrity of her own. The poems feel authentic, which ignites the energy beneath them.

While the poems’ sprawl in content and form gives Commodore a slow start, this quality is also what charges the book’s core with so much purpose. The grave and often empathetically arousing moments in these poems thus bear a form of irony. Appearing to lack connection to a greater whole, the poems suddenly open when paired with the enduring, persistent engagement just pages further in the book. The funnel of comments and ideas reverberate and echo in conjunction with the book’s growing context. As such, Commodore is a fantastic example of a book that develops its moral perspective, a growth Waters hints at in “The Holdings”:

A believer wants advice, instruction
not aids
to reflection
not a shut lake flowing back
from the pornographic border

In the end, Waters’s poems lead to well-being. There is process, resilience, catharsis—and best of all, there is a sense of love for self and acceptance of the world. In our current state of cultural anxiety, we certainly need the explorations developed in Commodore.

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Never Made in America: Selected Poems of Martín Barea Mattos

Martín Barea Mattos
Translated by Mark Statman
Diálogos Books ($20)

by Eileen Murphy

behind the glass window
I am stopped and I shake
a phantom of flesh in fear
in ecstatic whisper
by consecrated chains of flowers
to the peace of spring

It is the reader who will stand “transfixed / in ecstatic whisper” at the poetry in Never Made in America, written by young-ish (age 40) Uruguayan poet Martín Barea Mattos and translated by Mark Statman. The book consists of two parts—and the original Spanish versions of the poems are included, which adds to the richness. The first comprises generous excerpts from By the hour, the day, the month, a polyphonic, long poem that ends with the lines “God ejaculates at last // at last I’m able to park.” The second part is the entirety of Barea Mattos’s book Made in China, a collection of poems on the theme of consumer society, which ends “I am the message tied to the stone begging you to pay my ransom / . . . Because we are rats of a now-closed lab. / Like stones released in the mountains.” The two parts form a well-translated work that’s not only enjoyable, but also powerful.

In the introduction to Never Made in America, Jesse Lee Kercheval describes Barea Mattos as “the joker in the pack of cards, as the magician, as the Master of Ceremonies at the circus of poetry.” These titles seem to fit. In addition to writing poetry, Barea Mattos is both a visual artist and musician (his band has two recordings under its belt); he also runs an international poetry reading series in Montevideo. His background is non-academic, although he did study for a time at the Universidad de la República. He is a leading figure of contemporary poets in Uruguay, if not all Latin America, and now, with Never Made in America, English-speaking readers can become familiar with some of his best work.

The long poem By the hour, the day, the month is a tour-de-force, a vast panorama of thoughts, styles, and themes. The poem is broken up into smaller, untitled sections that can be distinguished because the typography—font, font size, and/or spacing—changes with each section. The title By the hour, the day, the month [Por hora, por dia, por mes] comes from the customary way garages around the world advertise their parking spaces—available “by the hour,” and so forth.

This part of Never Made in America takes the form of a long collage poem tied together by the poet’s strong voice—or it might simply be called a meditation. Barea Mattos examines post-modern consumerism (his obsession), for example, saying, “the ocean is a wasteland where the television arrived pawning / my grandmother’s jewels” and “for the sneering marketing that decided to spread its message // the one promised in school / ‘we have the right to consume what they teach.’”

In the middle of this, like a meandering river, the poem’s theme sometimes veers towards nature, love, and relationships—in a way that reminds me of Apollinaire’s poem “Zone”—with individual or personal issues mixed up with thoughts about society. In that regard, the poem also resembles Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl” and Ezra Pound’s Cantos. In the sense that we get everything through Barea Mattos’s slightly gonzo but intelligent and honest viewpoint, the poem’s trajectory also resembles the work of one of Barea Mattos’s favorite writers, Jack Kerouac.

In the second, shorter part of the book, the stand-alone Made in China, Martín Barea Mattos conjures up a vast garbage dump that’s an obvious allegorical reference to our consumer society. The work is comical, didactic, unique, and intensely lyrical. Using the persona Carlos Baúl del Aire, Barea Mattos takes us along as he fills his writer’s notebook with poems, explaining that it “will be the COMPLAINT BOOK / of my post-consumption delights.” The resulting Made in China poems are a mixture of cultural criticism and personal material, and they are glorious. Who can resist poems with titles like “I don’t remember how or when or where I murdered my parents” and “There is no form for the lost or bored”? There are many memorable lines, as well; for example, in “Abysmal sea skin whisper,” the speaker laments, “If there were water in the water we wouldn’t die of thirst.”

Mark Statman, the fearless translator-poet of Never Made in America, has been acclaimed for his translation of Federico Garcia Lorca’s Poet in New York (Grove Press, 2008) and is a poet himself whose most recent collection is That Train Again (Lavender Ink, 2015). Statman’s English version of Never Made in America rises to the challenge of capturing the poetic genius of the original. His translation skills are especially showcased when Barea Mattos engages in wordplay, as he loves to do, for example, in the section of By the hour, the day, the month entitled “él.” Thanks to Statman, these major Spanish-language works are accessible to the English-speaking reader, where we can enjoy the translated poems’ sparkle.

Never Made in America
is surely an instant classic, and it invites us to get acquainted with one of the key players in South American poetry. In contrast to its title, the poetry inside this book is deliciously homegrown. Read these poems—they’ll feed your mind.

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Marvels of the Invisible

Jenny Molberg
Tupelo Press ($16.95)

by George Longenecker

In her first book, Marvels of the Invisible, Jenny Molberg looks through a scientific lens in poems that are both memoirs and detailed descriptions of life forces. Her verse is lush with imagery, and in both her lyric and narrative poetry shows imagination and mastery of craft. This book won the Berkshire Prize from Tupelo Press, and it’s clear on reading the poems why it was a winner.

The title comes from an instruction manual: “With your new Microset Model I, you will discover marvels of the invisible.” In the reverie of the title poem, “My father is six years old. The light / spills in as he bends over the microscope / and folds a single ant onto a plastic slide.” The memoir of her father could end there, but Molberg takes us beyond: “Half a century later my mother’s breasts / are removed.” She and her father walk through the hospital:

through orange-tiled hallways.
He shows me the room full of microscopes.
I imagine his eye, how it descends
like a dark blue planet,
and his breath as it clouds the lens.

Molberg writes with dexterity about the natural world and uses arcane historical sources for inspiration. In “Nocturne for the Elephant,” a pianist plays notes from ivory keys to a zoo elephant: “The song is a downpour / and the elephant begins to pace. The pianist drops / to the low B-flat and, in the base of its throat / the elephant echoes the tone . . . ” The idea came from an 1823 article on the differences between the membrana tympani in elephants and humans. Similarly, “Superficial Heart” is based on a 1798 article about a child born with her heart outside her body. “It pulses in a membrane sac like a frog’s / translucent throat . . . ”

While the poet’s description is rooted in the natural world, she veers toward the mystical in verses lush with lyrical beauty, as in “The Outer Core”: “I am sitting with the moon and we are drinking from the sky. / We break open the earth lake an egg and look inside. / We discover equinox, sulfur, Aurora Borealis.” In fact, Jenny Molberg looks through multiple lenses to give us a picture of the world. She offers the reader microscopic detail—an ant, the inner ear— looks through a telescope to paint the cosmos. Most importantly, she writes with skill, clarity, and sensitivity. This is an excellent first book; readers will look forward to a second.

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